Hurtado argues that if Jesus used the term, so would have the church. If Jesus' use of 'the Son of man' originated in his pondering of Daniel and served in particular as his device to affirm his identity as the human-like figure of that passage, it is very curious that this expression was not taken up in early Christian proclamation and confession. Hurtado then asks why the Early Church did drop the expression and connection if Jesus used it in this way. Bock responds that the Gospel texts tied to Daniel 7 are traditional texts, passed on orally long before they were recorded.
In other words they were well known and likely wisely circulated. Loba-Mkole is of the opinion that the term refers to a male human person, a human being in generic, indefinite and circum-locational sense. Casey writes that Jesus must have known another 'son of man', since he was old enough to find human speech intelligible, because in Aramaic the term was used regularly to indicate a male person.
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Horsley also does not agree that Mark's utilisation of the concept of 'the Son of man' is derived from Daniel 7; he argues that in Mark the 'Son of man' has nothing to with judgement or the gathering of the elect which is correct as is the case in Daniel 7, and therefore it is unlikely that Jesus uses an intertextual reference to Daniel 7 although other factors make it probable that Jesus interprets himself in terms of the Danielic 'one like a son of man'.
This is, however, a minority viewpoint with most scholars seeing a connection between the usage of 'one like a son of man' in the book of Daniel and the usage of 'Son of man' by the Gospel writer of Mark. The most important argument is that the contexts of suffering and exaltation that form the background for both books agree to such an extent that Mark's dependence upon Daniel 7 can be presupposed. Like most apocalyptic literature it addresses a situation of seeming hopelessness Moloney The Markan context is the so-called Caligula crisis Van Aarde Josephus Antiquities already stated that Daniel was popular among 1st-century Jews, implying the probability that Daniel's enigmatic, 'One like a son of man' provides a plausible source for Jesus' 'Son of man' sayings.
The context of the literary setting of Daniel is the pressure on exiled Jews in Babylon to honour the Babylonian king and worship his gods. In Daniel 7 the prophet sees a vision of four beasts rising out of the sea to attack Israel Dn The terrifying, dreadful and exceedingly strong fourth beast with great iron teeth that devours and destroys everything has ten horns Dn Three of these horns are plucked up by the roots to make room for another little horn with eyes like human eyes, and a mouth speaking arrogantly Dn , The context is one of suffering and exaltation; while the little horn makes war against the saints and causing severe trouble when it devours and breaks in pieces, and stamps what is left with its feet Dn , 'One like a son of man' is appointed to rule Dn The same context determines Daniel 10 that relates how Daniel's fasting and prayer in mourning is answered by the vision of a man clothed in linen, with a belt of fine gold from Uphaz around his waist, his body like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the sound of a multitude.
The prominence of Michael, the heavenly deliverer, expresses the conviction that the salvation of Israel was not to be attained by human military action but by reliance on the heavenly world. The image in Daniel 10 reflects Mesopotamian myths where gods fight each other and the outcome of their wars is reflected on earth by determining the wars between nations Collins Who is the 'one like a son of man' revealed to Daniel , 18?
The phrase may refer to one like a human being, one looking like a man, or simply man. Daniel portrays one like a son of man coming to the Ancient of days where he is given him dominion and glory and a kingdom. His dominion is described as a dominion that will last very long, 4 and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed Dn Daniel describes how the Ancient of days gives judgement in favour of the saints of the Most high, and the time comes when the saints possess the kingdom, and the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most high Dn ; Brandenburger Who are the 'saints of the Most high'?
A literal translation is 'the holy ones of the highest one' Koch Some researchers are of the opinion that it denotes the angels Dequeker ; Noth , while the majority believes that it refers to the righteous Jews, or more specifically the small group of people sympathetic to the apocalyptic vision cf.
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De Boer The reference only includes righteous Jews, those following the doctrines of the wise, visionary figures like Daniel, forming an elite group preaching non-violent resistance and seeing persecution as purifying, allowing Collins to speak of apocalypses as resistance literature. The symbol of 'One like a son of man' refers to the election, justification, vindication and elevation of these Jews, a rather small group, the elite responsible for writing Daniel Tabor Spangenberg thinks there is some textual witness that the 'son of man' might also refer to a future messianic king descended from the saints, the Jews, although this is not clear from the text.
All the possessions of the heathen super powers are given over to the Jews. The super powers succeed each other but the Jewish kingdom will exist without interruption cf. Dn ; as well. The saints are the Jews that follow the doctrines of the wise who preach non-violent resistance. The saints utilise an eschatological interpretation in order to understand the claims and stipulations of the Torah for their own day because they are living in the end times Collins This group, the saints, is in several respects similar to the angels who are the holy ones of heaven and the instruments of divine power contra the animals in the vision that embody earthly human-political power.
The conclusion is that Jesus finds in Daniel a paradigm of suffering, enthronement, and authority that he utilises to describe his own journey and interpret himself, and in the Danielic figure of the 'Son of man' he sees himself as the enthroned figure in the heavenly vision as the representative of the 'saints of the Most high' Wright The earliest witnesses to the Old Greek version of Daniel 7 equate 'the son of man' with God and represent a perspective of Daniel 7 that most likely existed in the 1st century CE, argues Zacharias The Greek 'son of man' coheres with the Son of man sayings in Matthew and indicates that the evangelist was familiar with a similar textual tradition that places the Son of man on the glorious throne where he judges the nations Zacharias Jesus' use of 'Son of man'.
In the previous section it was argued that Jesus' 'Son of man' sayings exist within the context of suffering, enthronement, and authority that also appear in the narrative of Daniel's visions. It is necessary to investigate the Markan sayings. Bultmann suggests that these sayings about the 'Son of man' can be arranged into three groups or three categories: Those that refer to Jesus' earthly activity Mk , 28 ; those that refer to his passion Mk ; , 12, 31; , 45; a, 21b, 41 ; and those that refer to his second coming Mk ; , 34; The 'Son of man' sayings form part of Jesus' idiolect , his unique way of assessing and interpreting his ministry and life Hurtado Van Aarde calls 'son of man' a subversive saying of Jesus, developed into the titular attribution of honouring or renouncing Jesus as 'Son of man'.
Authority and enthronement. The earthly group of sayings applies the title to Jesus when he claims that the Son of man has the authority on earth to forgive sins Mk and exercise authority over the Sabbath because the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath Mk The two sayings of Jesus have in common that it was preceded and initiated by a challenge to Jesus' authority. Firstly, Jesus heals a paralytic when he responds to the man's faith by saying, 'Son, your sins are forgiven' Mk The scribes judge Jesus' words to be blasphemous because God alone can forgive sins Mk ; Luz Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven', or to say, 'Stand up and take your mat and walk'?
But so that you may know that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins, He said to the paralytic, 'I say to you, stand up, take your mat and go to your home'. Mk Bystanders respond to the miracle with the observation, 'We have never seen anything like this! Secondly, Jesus and his disciples go through the grainfields on the Sabbath and they pluck heads of grain because they are hungry, leading to the Pharisees' remark that the disciples are doing what is not lawful on the Sabbath Mk Jesus responds by reminding them how David and his companions consumed the bread of the Presence when they were hungry, which is not lawful for any but the priests to eat Mk By emphasising his humanity with this term that in its Aramaic form would have reminded his listeners of Ezekiel's description of himself as a 'son of man', a fallible, mortal being that stands before the sovereign God in contrast to Daniel's 'one like a son of man' being appointed as ruler of the cosmos, Jesus contrasts what his disciples see in him with what they experience of him, that he heals and takes authority over the Sabbath and by implication, the Torah.
Eight of Mark's 14 Son of man sayings contain references to Jesus' suffering, death, and resurrection Mk ; , 12, 31; , 45; a, 21b, 41 as a mode of self-reference Horsley Jesus will suffer as a human being but through his death he will be vindicated as the One returning to sit at God's right hand implying that God reveals himself through Jesus, or that Jesus is rising to enact judgement as McKnight argues, forming the heart of Christian apocalypticism, according to Van Aarde ; again demonstrating the clear agreement with the context of Daniel, of suffering and exaltation.
Moloney argues that Jesus used the term, 'the Son of man' to speak of himself at all stages of his life, based on Daniel to point toward God as the ultimate actor in the vindication of faithful yet suffering Israel Dn When Jesus uses the expression he makes sense of his life, death, and vindication, as 'anticipating his cruel end, he submitted to it, trusting that his unhappy fate was somehow for the good' Allison And as in Daniel 7 the final moment of vindication is not seen as something that would complety be experienced , but is displaced to the realm where God alone exercises control.
In the Synoptic Gospels the final parousia of the vindicating of the Son of man is also displaced to the 'close of the age' Mt ; Van Aarde In Mark Jesus starts teaching his disciples he continues in and that the Son of man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
A characteristic of these teaching is that Jesus refers to himself as the Son of man every time he warns his disciples about his coming persecution and death. The arrest and conviction would lead to his death, but after three days he will rise again, proving his subsequent vindication, hinting that Daniel 7 was a fitting metaphor for Jesus' crucifixion and subsequent resurrection, within the context of suffering and exaltation Hardin The Son of man's humiliation at the hands of people will lead to his vindication in his resurrection, illustrating the phrase's function as a code word for Jesus humanity, combined with his elevatedness and divinity as the One sitting at the right hand of the Father Mk Mark narrates Jesus' transfiguration before Peter, James and John on a high mountain, when with dazzling clothes as a sign of a divine theophany he converses with Moses and Elijah.
Book of Ezekiel
In this way he connects the experience on the high mountain with the resurrection of the One who seems to be human but proves to be much more. In Mark he explains that Elijah has come to restore all things but they presumably those that also oppose the Son of man did to him whatever they pleased. Jesus responds by promising them that even though they will drink from the same cup that he has to drink they will suffer in the same manner as he will , notwithstanding he cannot grant them to sit at his right or left hand.
Although Jesus is a human being, his coming changes the tonality of being human. Mark narrates how Jesus and his disciples eat the Passover meal, ending in his announcement that one of them will betray him. It would have been better for that one not to have been born. The phrase indicates his vulnerability, but he uses it in an ironic sense to demonstrate how his vulnerability leads to his vindication, as the suffering of the elect in Daniel 7 changes in meaning to become their justification, vindication and elevation.
Jesus' use of the term, 'Son of man' in this context suggests that he contrasts himself to 'the sinners'. In Mark Jesus warns that those who are ashamed of him and his words will find that the Son of man is ashamed of them when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels, alluding to Daniel ; and with Jesus assuming the identity of the One who all peoples, nations, and languages serve, allusions that comes from Daniel 7 Leim Verheyden shows the tension in these verses, namely between the purpose of the passage, which is apparently to announce the salvation of the elect Mk within the context of quotations from the Hebrew Bible , and mentions that one way to think about the tension is to give full emphasis to the result of the parousia as described in Mark , as inspired by the theophany of YHWH as described in the Day-of-YHWH traditions.
Here it is interpreted essentially as a salvific action, while Mark 's images are interpreted as metaphors. The question is the following: Of what are these verses metaphors? Are it of the Parousia as a day of judgement led by the Son of man, or as the theophany of the Son of man in which salvation for the elect is realised Verheyden ?
Mark b contains a reading of Isaiah a that does not go back to the LXX. The combination of the two passages from Isaiah and the agreements with Joel suggest that Mark is the result of a freely formulated conflation of texts from the Hebrew Bible, and the result of the conflation is a quite different text Verheyden where the representations of the theophany of YHWH and the Day of YHWH have influenced each other, and they have several motifs and images in common.
The coming of the Son of man is mentioned without any recourse to the description of a judgement, although it is expressed in terms of cosmic signs. The appearances of YHWH in the Hebrew Bible are located on earth, often on a mountain, and accompanied by a relatively natural event, usually a storm cf. Mk and its discussion above. In Mark 13 the Parousia is expressed in universalistic terms, which is particularly appropriate in the context of an apocalyptic discourse describing the theophany of the Son of man as an eschatological event Verheyden The entire universe will collapse Mk , but that is not important in itself.
It is the framework for the one thing that is important, which is the coming of the Son of man Mk , portrayed in conformity with Daniel Schweizer ; Vermes Mark is a part of Jesus' teaching about the coming destruction of the temple Mk , with its accompanying false prophets, persecution, wars, earthquakes, famines, and the desolating sacrilege set up where it ought not to be Mk before the Son of man will come back with cosmic and catastrophic phenomena accompanying it Mk Return to Book Page.
Jon Bonker Foreword. Though Thomas Guthrie is primarily known for his work with the poor, 'The Gospel In Ezekiel' shows Guthrie's skill as a pastor and preacher to take part of the book of Ezekiel and show the Gospel and Christ in the texts. This book will both comfort and convict the person to seriously consider where they are in relationship with the Lord.
Get A Copy. Kindle Edition , pages. More Details Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The Gospel In Ezekiel , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about The Gospel In Ezekiel. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Oct 28, Louisa Black rated it liked it Shelves: christian-non-fiction. I wanted to love this book and the preacher's readings so much but unfortunately it really was completely different than what I expected it to be.
I really wanted to learn more as I read Ezekiel and definitely learn about the gospel within it and hoped this would be a valuable aid. I don't know if it's the decade it was written in but to read the way this author relates Ezekiel and his findings are quite intense and I found I lost a lot of time and concentration in trying to understand the point h I wanted to love this book and the preacher's readings so much but unfortunately it really was completely different than what I expected it to be.
I don't know if it's the decade it was written in but to read the way this author relates Ezekiel and his findings are quite intense and I found I lost a lot of time and concentration in trying to understand the point he was trying to make. At points, I felt it was more self-indulgent of the author using prose and formation of words that really did not communicate the reading of Ezekiel at all and it really dragged and was long winded in many places. I would not recommend this for a study note or to aid your understanding of the gospel in Ezekiel maybe if you wanted a different approach or take on the book itself this might be encouraging.
Sep 07, Andy rated it liked it. A decent book overall. Unfortunately, the title leads one to expect what you will not find in the pages of the book. There is no exposition of Ezekiel. There are several practical observations on various aspects of Christian living suggested by assorted passages in Ezekiel That's it. It does not look at the whole book - just the one chapter. My enjoyment of the book was always disrupted by my expectation of something else based on the title. The lectures are good nonetheless, but they can ha A decent book overall. The lectures are good nonetheless, but they can hardly be said to be based on the passages cited from Ezekiel.
As Peter said of the prophets, they saw the sufferings and they saw the glory that would follow 1 Pet. I think Ezekiel saw it better than any of the other prophets. McGee, J. Thru the Bible Commentary, Vol. Alright--take a look at Jesus. When we'd sing that song, 'Take time to be holy; speak oft with thy Lord' in chapel, Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer used to always stop us and say, 'Change that first line. Let us sing it, Take time to behold Him.
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Behold Him, then. Vernon McGee. It's a day when many are hearing the Word of God, and we rejoice in that. But many do not hear the Word of God, and what about that? Well, Paul says that we're a Savior of life unto those that are saved and a Savior of death unto those that are lost. In other words, there's going to be a whole lot of people that listen to this program that are going to do nothing about it and, actually, the gospel is going to condemn them, instead of saving them, because they'd never be able to go into the presence of God and say 'Look, I never heard it at all.
We've been talking about that so long. What are the steps, if there are steps in it? Is the first thing that takes place that you believe? And how can a lost man who has no capacity for God? They've all gone out of the way. Each one has turned to his own way. There's none that seeketh after God. That's the condition of any lost person. It was the condition of you, if today you're a Christian.
You at one time had no desire for God. That certainly was my condition, a time when I had no desire for God. Well, what is the first step? Well, we're going to be saying a great deal about this later on, but right now let me say this, that I think that the first step is conviction and that conviction comes from hearing the Word of God, and that's the thing that's important. My friend, I stand in judgment now And feel that you are to blame somehow.
On earth I walked with you by day And never did you point the way. You knew the Lord in truth and glory But never did you tell the story. My knowledge then was very dim, You could have led me safe to Him. Though we lived together here on earth, You never told me of the second birth. And now I stand this day condemned Because you failed to mention Him.
We walked by day and talked by night And yet you showed me not the light.
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You let me live and love and die, You knew I'd never live on high. Yes, I called you friend in life And trusted you through joy and strife. And yet on coming to this dreadful end, I cannot now call you my friend. This is the only reference to a modern nation in the entire Old Testament.